Tory
HPAs and 21st dynasty chronology
Fri Dec 16, 2016 07:13
112.198.71.189

Jaime:

Thanks for bringing the Prada paper on tabs, mummy braces, and pendants from the Bab el-Gasus cache reproduced in Černý’s notebooks to the forum’s attention.

Those who have had time to go through it have to be struck, as I was, over the number of items belonging to "HPA Pinudjem son of KING PSUSENNES MERIAMUN." Prada lists all five items under Pinudjem II son of Menkheperre. This seems wrong. I can no longer accept that the latter HPA altered his patronymic, at whim, between "son of Menkheperre" and "royal son of king Psusennes." I am now convinced that there was an HPA Pinudjem who was the king’s bodily son of Psusennes I. He is the real Pinudjem II and the Pinudjem who was Menkheperre’s son is the third Pinudjem.

This changes the situation in the 21st dynasty dramatically in my opinion, and supports my views. We have three HPAs who were in office during the brief 9-year reign of king Amenemope, and in the following order:

1. HPA Nesbanebdjed II son of Menkheperre
2. HPA Pinudjem II son of King Psusennes I
3. HPA Pinudjem III son of Menkheperre

All three men are linked to Amenemope. No. 3 is number 3 because he died and was buried in someone’s year 10. The assumption is that it is year 10 of Siamun. That assumption is now cast in doubt and is probably incorrect. I again point out that, contra Reeve’s attempt to get around this, year 10 of Shoshenq I comes before year 10 of Siamun (burial of Djedptahiufankh in the back of DB 320). Have to give Rohl credit where its due, and this doesn't mean agreeing with all of his conclusions. But he missed this one about the HPAs and I have not seen any discussion of it on the "other" forum.

I would have Herihor succeeding Ramses XI directly, and Smendes I and Pinudjem I succeeding him afterwards. In such scenario, I would allow Smendes I to reign for the 26 years ascribed to him by Manetho, overlapping the entirety of the first half of the reign of Pinudjem (it would feel more comfortable than correcting 26 to [1]6, a whim of mine in order to solve some anomalies).


In the light of the above, I see problems here. If Herihor succeeded RXI directly, whose year is the year 6 when Herihor renewed the royal burials as just an HPA? I think its time to agree with the late Terry Skinner about Hedjkheperre-setepenre Nesbanebdjed I (Σμένδης, Σμένδις) reigning 26 years. It is more likely just 6 years and Manetho followed by Ptolemy of Mendes have an error here, “eta ks” = 26 years; but delete the kappa, “eta s” = 6 years, and problems go away. The terminal year 6 of Nesbanebdjed I would the year 6 when Herihor renewed the royal burials as HPA. Nesbanebdjed I died later this same year and that is when Herihor became king.

I list here again my chronology from Ramesses XI to the early 22nd dynasty, incorporating the data of three HPAs under Amenemope. Lunar data in red type:

10. Ramesses XI: 1108–1073 BC

• unknown to Manetho and Ptolemy
• HPA Amonhotep
• the king discontinued his old year count in year 9 and began year 1 of the wHm mswt (1100 BC)
Karnak Oracle - year 7 of the wHm mswt, III Šmw 28 wrš = 16 Apr 1094 BC (Julian), LD 1.
• HPA Payankh
• P. Turin Cat. 1895+2006 (Taxation Pap.) dated year 12 (1089 BC)
• Year 19 - death of HPA Payankh in 1082 BC, then Herihor became HPA for 15 years (1082-1067)


21st DYNASTY ( 1073–897 BC )

1. Hedjkheperre-setepenre Nesbanebdjed I (Σμένδης, Σμένδις): 1073–1067 BC

• 6 years. Manetho followed by Ptolemy have an error, “eta ks” = 26 years; delete the kappa, “eta s” = 6 years.
• he married Ramesses XI's widow Tentamun, mother of the king’s daughter Henuttawy
• the voyage of Wenamun in year 5; Tentamun still living
• death of Tentamun, then Nesbanebdjed I married his step-daughter Henuttawy
• birth of the heir Psusennes I in 1068 BC in Thebes (hence his name)
• years 1 and 6 in texts made by HPA Herihor belong to king Nesbanebdjed I
• birth of Menkheperre, eldest son of Pinudjem I, ca. 1069
• birth of Masaharta ca. 1068
• death of Nesbanebdjed I in 1067 BC

2. King Herihor: 1067–1052 BC

• 15 years. This king was unknown to Manetho and Ptolemy.
• Psusennes I was a newborn. So Herihor succeeded Nesbanebdjed I as king.
• Pinudjem I became HPA and married Henuttawy, king’s daughter (of Ramesses XI) and king’s wife (of Nesbanebdjed I).
• burial of Nuteme, wife of Herihor, by HPA Pinudjem I in year 1 of Herihor
• years 1, 6, 9, 10, 13, and 15 on linens made by HPA Pinudjem son of Payankh are Herihor’s regnal years
• year 6: Amonhotep I coffin docket by HPA Pinudjem I (1st reburial)
• Herihor’s career spanned 30 years: 15 years as HPA plus 15 years as king (Khonsu Oracle)

3. Kheperkhare-setepenamun Pinudjem I: 1052–1013 BC

• 40 years. This king was unknown to Manetho and Ptolemy.
• The former HPA Pinudjem I, son of HPA Payankh
• He succeeded Herihor as king in 1052 BC
• Menkheperre, his eldest son?, became HPA in 1052 BC
• year 8 of King Pinudjem: re-wrapping mummy of Amonhotep I
• Menkheperre was called north (to Tanis or El-Hibeh) and another son of Pinudjem I, i.e. Masarhata, took over as the HPA in Thebes
• HPA Masaharta in year 16 (1037 BC); Amonhotep I coffin docket (2nd reburial)
• HPA Masaharta died a mature greying adult, about 40, in year 25 (1028 BC)
• Menkheperre was recalled south in year 25 (1028 BC), he resumed the HPA office in Thebes (Banishment Stele = Louvre C. 256)
• year 40 of King Pinudjem I (Karnak block No. 3A)
• death of King Pinudjem I in 1013 BC: born ca. 1089, HPA at age 22, king at age 37, died age 77.
• At the death of Pinudjem I the Great Chief Shoshenq A was recognized in Herakleopolis in Upper Egypt with regnal years but not with royal titles.
KPA 4b - year 2 of the Great Chief Shoshenq A, III 3ḫt 7 = 8 July 1012 BC (Julian), LD 1.

4. Aakheperre Psusennes I (Ψουσένης, Ψουσέννης): 1048–1007 BC

• 41 years. Manetho and Ptolemy give conflicting figures: “eta ms” = 46 years verses “eta ma” = 41 years. The basis for chosing the latter as the correct figure is that Henuttawy was not a king’s mother while her second husband Pinudjem I was still HPA.
• The son of Nesbanebdjed I and Henuttawy (now adding “king’s mother” to her string of titles); and step-son of King Pinudjem I.
• Greater Dakhla Stele attests to his year 19
• born 1068 BC, crowned at Tanis at age 20, died age 61

5. Neferkare Amenemnisu (ΝεΦελχερης, ΝεΦερχερης): 1007–1003 BC

• 4 years. Presumably the son of Aakheperre Psusennes I.
• HPM Ashakhet A
• the king “Amenemnisu” in the Memphite Priest Genealogy (Berlin 23673, 1.15)
• year 48 of Menkheperre (= year 3 of Amenemnisu, 1005 BC)
• King AND HPA Menkheperre (Gauthier, LdR III, 267)
• Nesbanebdjed II became HPA
• King Menkheperre but not also HPA (Gauthier, LdR III, 267)
• death of Menkheperre in 1004 BC, age ca. 65. His “kingship,” if ever real, was so brief it wasn’t mentioned by his descendants. His lengthy 48-year career as HPA overshadowed.

6. Usermaatre Amenemope (Αμένωφθις): 1003–994 BC

• 9 years. Presumably the son of Amenemnisu.
• death of HPA Nesbanebdjed II, then Pinudjem II son of King Psusennes I became HPA
• death of HPA Pinudjem II son of King Psusennes I, then Pinudjem III son of Menkheperre became HPA
• KPA 33a – HPA Pinudjem III son of Menkheperre.
• The Great Chief Shoshenq A put his own son Shoshenq I on the throne at the death of Amenemope who was not survived by any sons.

7. Hedjkheperre Shoshenq I (Σέσογχωσις): 994–945 BC

• 49 years. This king has fallen out of Manetho’s and Ptolemy’s 21st dynasty list, just like several other kings are missing, but he is recorded in Sothis.
• The eldest son of the Great Chief Shoshenq A.
Greater Dakhla: year 5, IV Prt 25 wrš = 17 Dec 989 BC (Julian), LD 1.
• HPA Pinudjem III died (age ca. 59) and was buried in the Deir el-Bahri Cache (DB 320) on IV Prt 20 in year 10
• Iuput succeeded Pinudjem III as HPA
• Interment of 3PA Djedptahiuefankh in the way back of DB 320 in year 10/11
KPA 4c - year 13 of Shoshenq I, III Prt 9 = 31 Oct 982 BC (Julian), LD 1.
KPA 33b - year 14 of [Shoshenq-Mery]a[mun], IV Šmw 5 = 25 Mar 980 BC (Julian), LD 7.
• Gebel es-Silsilah Quary Stele No. 100 from year 21 of Shoshenq I by HPA Iuput
• construction of jubilee forecourt in Karnak, decorated with Syrian campaign monumental relief and text
• death of HPA Iuput and then Psusennes III, son of Pinudjem III, became HPA
• the king adopted the new prenomen “Heqakheperre” just before he died
• two linens, "[Year X under] king Amenemope; Year 49 [under king Shoshenq I]," wrapped one mummy.
• born ca. 1013, king at age 19, died age 67 and survived all of his sons.

8. Aakheperre Osorkon (Οσορχωρ the Elder): 945–919 BC

• 27 years. This king was the younger brother of his predecessor. Same father, Great Chief Shoshenq A, different mothers. So Osorkon’s mother Mehtenweskhet was a “king’s mother” (Pasenhor Stela).
• 27 years. Manetho gives a dynasty total of 130 years but only 114 years are listed (Africanus). The missing 16 years were added back by Ptolemy’s revisions (Eusebius). Errors still remained. Reducing Psusennes I from 46 to 41 years is correct. But instead of increasing Psusennes III from 14 to 35 years these 21 years probably belong to Osorkon and his reign should be increased from 6 to 27 years.
KPA 3(B)a – Induction of Nespaneferhor: year 2 of Aakheperre-Setepenre [Osorkon], I Šmw 20 wrš = 31 Dec 944 BC (Julian), LD 2.
• Papyrus Brooklyn 16.205 issued in year 4 recalls year 49 (of Shoshenq I)
• Osorkon married Maatkare, daughter of Psusennes III
• father of Shoshenq C (born ca. 940 BC)
• born ca. 1001, king at age 56, died age 71 shortly after next king.

9. Netjerkheperre Siamun: 936–920 BC

• 17 years. This king was unknown to Manetho and Ptolemy, I now suspect, because his reign was eclipsed by his father’s, i.e. Siamun began as the co-regent of Osorkon but he predeceased him. Siamun reigned at Thebes and his father Osorkon moved to Tanis. Certain officials dated by Siamun’s years.
• coffins of Seti I and Ramesses II were moved out of the tomb of Seti I and transferred to DB 320 on IV Prt 17 in year 10 of Siamun (927 BC).
• the coffin of queen Inhapi was moved from the "k3y of Inhapi" and transferred to DB 320 on IV Prt 20
• DB 320 was then sealed in year 10 and not opened until modern times, queen Inhapi was found at the entrance.
KPA 3(B)b - Induction of Hor ii son of Nespaneferhor: year 17 of Siamun, I Šmw [1] = 6 Dec 920 BC (Julian), LD 2.
• Nesipaqashuty ii, grandfather of the future 3PA Djedthutefankh i
• Šedsunefertem, prophet and privy-counselor of the Great Place (Cairo JE 45569)
• Pahemnetjer, prophet and privy-counselor of the Great Place (Cairo JE 45569)

10. Tyetkheperre Har-Psusennes III (Ψιναχης): 919–910 BC

• 9 years. The first king “Psusennes” in the Memphite Priest Genealogy (Berlin 23673, 1.13)
• Karnak degree in favour of Maatkare, daughter of Psusennes III (no prenomen), mother of Shoshenq C
• The year 5 linen belongs here: “Linen which the HPA Psusennes (II) son of Pinudjem (III) made for his lord Amun in Year 5” (915 BC).
• Nile-god statue BM 8
• The Bes statue of HPA Shoshenq C and his son priest Harsiese (a future HPA)
• Abydos graffito documents HPA Psusennes II in office during this king’s reign.


11. Hedj-heqa-re Har-Psusennes II (Σουσέννης/Ψουσέννης): 910–897 BC

• 14 years. The second king “Psusennes” in the Memphite Priest Genealogy (Berlin 23673, 1.12)
• This king is the former HPA Psusennes II, son of Pinudjem III, son of Menkheperre.
• At his accession in 910 BC, Shoshenq C became HPA.
Block Karnak 94, CL 2149 - year 11 of Psusennes IV, I Šmw 13 = 13 Dec 899 BC (Julian), LD 1.
• born ca. 976, HPA at age ca. 10, king at age 66, died age 79


22nd DYNASTY ( 905–786 )

1. Hedjekheperre Shoshenq II/C (Σέσογχις/Σέσογχωσις): 905–873 BC

• 33 years. Manetho followed by Ptolemy has an error, “eta ka” = 21 years; the kappa should be a lambda, “eta la” = 31 years.
• This king was formerly HPA Shoshenq C, son of Osorkon and Maatkare, daughter of Psusennes III.
• His son priest Harsiese became HPA in 905 BC.
• He renewed the statue CG 42192 for his maternal grandfather Psusennes III.
• 3PA Djedthutefankh i was in office and he was the king’s son-in-law by marriage to Tashepenbast.
• The vizier Nesipakashuti A, son of 3PA Djedthutefankh, died (CG 42232).
• He was not the son but the son-in-law of Nimlot A.
KPA 3(B)c - year 13, III Prt 10 = 8 Oct 893 BC (Julian), LD 1.
• Šedsunefertem became HPP and renewed the Apis embalming table of Hedjkheperre Shoshenq II/C
• Born ca. 940, HPA at age 30, king at age 35, died age 67.

* I prefer the following scenario rather than multiplying the number of kings named Shoshenq with no clue where to place them. The dynasty founder Shoshenq II/C went through stages during the first five years of his reign before a final version of his prenomen was chosen by year 5. He began as “Tyetkheperre” in imitation of his royal grandfather. He later adopted “Usermaatre” (cf. Nesipaqashuty A - CG 42232). He finally settled with “Hedjkheperre” by year 5 (cf. Nile level text #3 from year 5; S. Hermitage 5630 from year 10; Abibaal, son of Yehimilk, king of Byblos Statue; etc.). The “Maatkheperre” in CG 42192 is either a name he used before year 5 or it is a spelling mistake for Hedjkheperre. To help distinguish himself from Shoshenq I he added epithets to his titles. Piankhy also went through several prenomens (Menkheperre, Usimaatre, Sa-nefer-re) before settling with Sa-nefer-re.

2. Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I (Οσορθων): 874–859 BC

• 15 years. He became co-regent in year 32 of his father (see above) and sole king when his father died a year later in year 33.
• Thus, mummy linens of the priest Nakhtefmut (E) are: “year 33” (of Shoshenq II/C), and “year 3” (of Osorkon I) --- Exactly the reverse of what Kitchen argues about these two linens!
• HPA Harsiese, son of Shoshenq II/C, was succeeded by HPA Nesbanebdjed III, son of Osorkon I.
Block Karnak 94, CL 2149 - year 3 of Osorkon, II 3ḫt 14 = 11 May 871 BC (Julian), LD 1.
• Elibaal, son of Yehimilk, king of Byblos Statue (S. Louvre AO. 9502).
• HPA Nesbanebdjed III, son of Osorkon I, year 8 (Nile level text #17).
• Iuwelot was still a child in year 10 (in 867 BC); stèle de l'apange (Legrain, ZÄS 35, 12-16).
• HPA Nesbanebdjed III, year 14 (Nile level text #18).
• Born ca. 922, king at age 48, died age 62.

Regards
Tory

  • Re: Pinudjem I and MasahartaJaime O, Sun Dec 11 17:33
    Hi Tory, thank you for the reply. "Actually "son of X" is a patronymic not an epithet. Epithets can be earned, acquired, and taken away. Patronymics cannot." Yes. you're right. By 'epithet' I had an... more
    • HPAs and 21st dynasty chronology — Tory, Fri Dec 16 07:13
      • Re: HPAs and 21st dynasty chronologyJaime O, Fri Dec 16 18:14
        Hi Tory, I appreciate your further comments. "Those who have had time to go through it have to be struck, as I was, over the number of items belonging to "HPA Pinudjem son of KING PSUSENNES... more
        • Re: HPAs and 21st dynasty chronologyTory, Sat Dec 17 00:21
          Hi Jamie: To be honest, although I greatly respect Thijs I have not read all of his papers. I do not agree with him, and others, that the one explict text linking the first year of the wHm-mswt to a... more
          • Re: HPAs and 21st dynasty chronologyJaime O, Mon Dec 19 16:17
            Hi Tory, I appreciate your reply. "To be honest, although I greatly respect Thijs I have not read all of his papers. I do not agree with him, and others, that the one explict text linking the first... more
            • Re: HPAs and 21st dynasty chronologyTory, Tue Dec 20 11:21
              Hi Jamie: I’m afraid I can’t comment on Ad’s theory to separate king Pinudjem from HPA Pinudjem I until I’ve read his views. But I certainly do not put much stock in “12 kings of Diospolis” for the... more
              • Re: HPAs and 21st dynasty chronologyJaime O, Wed Dec 21 16:03
                Hi Tory I appreciate your further comments. " I’m afraid I can’t comment on Ad’s theory to separate king Pinudjem from HPA Pinudjem I until I’ve read his views. " I haven't read all, just a few,... more
                • ΣέσογχωσιςTory, Wed Dec 21 18:21
                  Hi Jamie: Σέσογχωσις (Sesonchosis) is the Libyan name Shoshenq. So your question avoids the obvious one which is why is the name Senusret I deleted... more
                  • Re: Σέσογχωσι&#Jaime O, Thu Dec 22 07:51
                    Hi Tory, Thanks again for the reply. "Where did Senusret I go? He got turned into Shoshenq I." Your theory of having Shoshenq I in between mid-21st Dynasty makes more sense to me as this discussion... more
                    • ΣέσογχωσιςTory, Thu Dec 22 21:02
                      Hi Jaime: If anyone can explain to me what possessed Manetho to put Σέσογχωσις, Άμμανέμου... more
                    • re: OrusRich McQuillen, Thu Dec 22 08:44
                      "You're totally right about Orus and other names." -- We have a possible lead from the Greeks on an Orus who was a king, about at that time. "Orus 1. The first king of the Troezenians, whose land was ... more
                  • re: TwosretRich McQuillen, Thu Dec 22 01:13
                    Hi Tory, Your article is almost entirely correct and a wonderful and nearly prototypical read for any Historian. Manetho does have flaws and different versions have different flaws. And it is hard to ... more
                    • re: TwosretTory, Thu Dec 22 02:19
                      Hi Rich Twosret was indeed a pharaoh, not a governor of some Libyan nome. But she does not have to be female-pharaoh in Egypt at the time of the Torjan war unless one is trying to salvage the... more
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