Jaime O
On Pasenhor's genealogy
Mon Apr 23, 2018 18:06

Hello all

In the following post I'll be citing Ritner, Robert K. (2009). Libyan Anarchy. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature

Pasenhor B’s intention in his genealogy is to show that his lineage has been in Heracleopolis for generations, “being one man the son of one man” (Ritner 2009:19). Ritner adds in footnote that this “is a recognized idiom for paternal succession”. And yet, the link between generations seems to breaks between Nimlot C and Djedptahefankh and again between Nimlot A and King Shoshenq. On the other hand, Pasenhor never fails to link his ancestors to their mothers and he always implies this relationship is biological (my emphasis):

“[Wedjptahefankh/Djedptahefankh is] (son) of the royal son, the like-titled Namlot, and BORN OF by the chief of the sistrum players of Herishef, King of the Two Lands, Ruler of the Two Banks, the woman Tenetseph” (idem)

“[King Shoshenq is] (son) of the God’s Father, great chief Nimlot AND the God’s Mother Tenetseph” (idem)

Looking at the genealogy, the mention of the mother is always consistent. Pasenhor might be ambiguous as to how Djedptahefankh relates to Nimlot but he is clear as to how he related to Tentseph. She is his biological mother but Nimlot doesn’t seem to be his biological father.

Based on this reading I suggest that Nimlot C married the woman Tentseph who had a son named Djedptahefankh from a previous husband. He passed before dying the offices at Heracleopolis to Djedptahefankh whilst the office of HPA passed to Takelot E, possibly an elder son by a previous wife. Maybe he adopted his stepson and thus Pasenhor counted himself as a direct descendant of Nimlot C.

On my current model I would suggest the following birth dates for Pasenhor’s lineage (dates are my own):

Nimlot A, c.1008
King Shoshenq, c.978
Osorkon I, c.960
Takelot I, c.910
Osorkon II, c.890
Nimlot C, c.860 – Dies during late Pedubast I/mid Osorkon II, c.830
Djedptahefankh, c.837
Hemptah A, c.814
Pasenhor A, c.791
Hemptah B, c.768
Pasenhor B, c.745 – Attested in 37 Shoshenq V, c.720

I would also suggest the following flow of events (dates are my own):
- Djedpthaefankh is born to Tentseph, c.837
- Tentseph marries Nimlot C between c.837and c.830
- Nimlot C is 1P Herishef and General and GC of Per-Sekhemkheperre in 15 Os. II, c.831
- Nimlot C becomes 1PA in c.830, perhaps adopts Djedptahefankh
- Nimlot C dies within a year, Takelot E/F succeeds and possibly holds the titles in Heracleopolis
- Takelot E/F becomes King Takelot II (c.810) and passes the titles in Heracleopolis to Djedptahefankh
- Djedptahefankh dies before 39 Sh. III (c.778), Bakenptah succeeds as General of Heracleopolis (Ritner 2009:53)

I make a similar scenario for King Shoshenq. He was not the biological son of Nimlot A but Tentseph was his biological mother. In this case I hold that Tentseph had K. Shoshenq by an unknown man previous to her marriage to Nimlot A. The latter is known to have a son, Shoshenq B, but I wouldn’t equate King Shoshenq with Shoshenq B.

Pasenhor’s kingly ancestor fathered Osorkon I by a lady named Karoama. We also know that a Shoshenq fathered a Commander of the Archers Osorkon by Karamat. These are most likely the same three individuals. However, the Commander’s father is SIMPLY a Chief of the Ma not a GREAT Chief of the Ma. If Shoshenq B was NOT a GC when his son was a Commander then Nimlot A must have lived to see an adult grandson. But in the Abydos Stela Shoshenq B is given as “Great Chief of Chiefs” and Mehetemweskhet seems to be alive as she is not yet a King’s Mother (this king being Osorkon the Elder). The implication is that Mehetemweskhet outlived Nimlot A and that she lived to see an adult great-grandson. I find this to be unlikely.

I would argue that the GREAT Chief of the Ma Shoshenq B is NOT the Chief of the Ma Shoshenq NOR the kingly ancestor of Pasenhor. GC of the Ma Shoshenq B is a biological son of Nimlot A by an unknown lady. He succeeded his father as GC before Osorkon the Elder was king and became king in his own right later (see the Karnak Priestly Annals where he shown to have had a Year 2, Ritner 2009:51). The ‘Chief of the Ma’ Shoshenq is the same as Pasenhor’s ancestor and is to be equated with Hedjkheperre Shoshenq I (to him belongs the Year 13 in the KPA, idem).

Currently I follow the proposal that Manetho’s Psinaches was a Shoshenq. I argue that Shoshenq B was this Psinaches. He was granted royal prerogative under some king before Osorkon the Elder (likely Amenemope, see the Abydos Stela) but only managed to step to the throne after Siamun. He reigned for 9 years. To him belong the aforementioned Year 2 from the Annals and a linen with Year 5 made by 1PA Psusennes, who succeeds as Psusennes II.

Unfortunately, the nature of the Annals is fragmentary. We can only be sure that an induction occurred in Year 2 of Shoshenq B and that a repetition of favors occurred in Year 13 of Shoshenq I. If these entries belong to one generation and these kings are from the same generation as well, as I propose, then these entries cannot be many years apart. I think a 14 years reign for Psusennes II would be anomalous as it would separate these entries for some 35 years. Surely possible. But then there is no evidence to sustain a long reign for Psusennes II so I suggest a lower figure of [4] years for him.

I suggest the following flow of events (dates are my own):
- Nimlot A is born to Shoshenq A and Mehetemweskhet, c.1008
- Shoshenq B is born to Nimlot A and an unknown wife, c.988
- Shoshenq I is born to Tentseph and an unknown husband (Shoshenq A??), c.978
- Tentseph marries Nimlot A, who perhaps adopts Shoshenq I
- Nimlot A dies before Osorkon the Elder is king, Shoshenq B becomes GREAT Chief of the Ma and erects the Abydos Stela, Shoshenq I is ‘Chief of the Ma’, c.970
- Osorkon I is born to Shoshenq I and Lady Karamat/Karoama, c.960
- Shoshenq B succeeds Siamun as king, is buried as Heqakheperre c.947-c.938
- Psusennes II succeeds Shoshenq B, his son-in-law Osorkon (I) becomes Commander of the Archers of Pharaoh, c.938-c.934
- Shoshenq I becomes king, reburies Shoshenq B to legitimize his power, c.934-c.902

Admittedly the lifespans of Shoshenq I and Osorkon I are a bit stretched. Probably because I’m inflating the former’s reign from 21 years to [3]1 sole years to account for the Year 33 linen found on Nakhtefmut’s mummy.

Any thoughts? If Mehetemweskhet was given her title as King’s Mother posthumously then part of my suggestions would crumble. What do we actually know about adoption in Ancient Egypt and its effects on succession and inheritance?

Best wishes,

Click here to receive daily updates