Toby Charles Anderson
Taharqa, age 20, co-reign with Shabataka
Fri Aug 9, 2019 11:46
104.231.68.141

Greetings,

One argument supporting the Shebitku-Shabaka succession order regards an inscription on a statue labelled 'CG 42204'. The statue is of Haremakhet 'the High Priest of Amun' who calls himself:

"king’s son of Shabaka, justified, who loves him, Sole Confidant of king Taharqa, justified, Director of the palace of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Tanutamun/Tantamani, may he live for ever."

Wikipedia argues that the 'absence' of Shebitku, in this inscription, is evidence that "King Shebitku was already dead" (See: G.P.F. Broekman, GM 245 (2015), p.24 per https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabaka). To this I quote the well-known saying: 'The absence of evidence is NOT evidence of absence'. Shebitku's absence in the inscription does not prove he wasn't alive.

Further any such conclusion ignores the evidence that Shebitku and Taharqa had some form of co-reign such as a 'head king'-'sub king' or emperor-'regional king'.

Based on the Kurru and Nuri tomb inscriptions: Shabako, Shebitku, and Taharqa were all brothers, and their age and reign order as just given.
[See: Dows Dunham and F.F.Laming MacAdam "Names and Relationships of the Royal Family of Napata", pg 139-149, in "The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology" (JEA) Vol35 (1949)](https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.533336/page/n189)

So it's reasonable to assume that Haremakhet, the eldest son of Shabako, overlapped both Shebitku and Taharqa. In Haremakhet's inscription, could it be that Taharka's role was some form of a 'sub-king' or 'reginal-king'?

G.Gertoux (See: "Dating Sennacherib's reign to Judah" ) relates to us the Biblical event where Taharka, Sennacherib, and Hezekiah's lives all merge together. From this Biblical account, all we know of Taharka, is that he entered the area, leading an army, and was called a king. Gertoux, equates this Biblical event to a conflict between Sabaka (and his high priest SETHON) with Sennacherib as told by Herodotus, to wit:

"...Egypt was invaded by Sabacos king of Ethiopia and a great
army of Ethiopians ...The next king was the priest of Hephaestus whose name was Sethos ...So when presently king Sennacherib came against Egypt...Their enemies came there, too, and during the night were overrun by a horde of field mice that gnawed quivers and bows and the handles of shields, with the result that many were killed fleeing unarmed the next day. And to this day a stone statue of the Egyptian king stands in Hephaestus’ temple, with a mouse in his hand, and an inscription to this effect: “Look at me, and believe” (The Histories II:137, 141)."

...Egypt was invaded by Sabacos ...The next king was the priest of Hephaestus(Ptah)
...Egypt was invaded by Sabacos ...The next king was the priest of Hephaestus(Ptah)
...Egypt was invaded by Sabacos ...The next king was the priest of Hephaestus(Ptah)

What does Herodotus mean by this?

Were there 2 invasions?
or Was there 1 invasion?

and
ie. Was the 'next king' also, at the same time, the priest?
....or was he first high priest and then the next king?

Somewhat controversially, Sargon's records describe 2 battles with the Kushites.
1. Rapha, ie. Rafa, ie. Rapihu
2. Eltekeh

The best evidence supporting the fact that there were 2 battles between the Assyrians and the Kushites, during this period, was the 'negroid' engravings in the sculptures and walls of Room 5 at Sargon's Khorsabad palace. [See especially pg 101 of Journal of Near Eastern Studies vol 35, no2 (april 1976, by J.E.Reade 'Sargon's Campaigns'.] Reade dates these battles to 720 and 712 respectively, though I suggest, for now, better dates to be: (1) 722 to 720) and (2) 715 to 714. Nevertheless, despite these small differences in dates, Reades data destroys the commonly held belief that the Eltekeh battle occurred in 701bc. Reade discusses that the first battle was attended by Sargon, but not the latter. It is commonly accepted that the latter battle was led by Sargon's general; however, it can also be argued that this latter battle was led by Sargon's 'crown prince' Sennacherib. There is much evidence that Sennacherib was very active militarily as a crown prince prior to his accesion in 705bc.

Reasonably, then, I suggest, that Herodotus was describing 2 battles.
1. King Sabaka with his high priest 'Sethon' at Rapihu against Sargon circa 722 to 720bc
2. King 'Sethon' at Eltekeh against Sennacherib circa 715 to 712bc

Herodotus explains how the Kushites won this second battle at Eltekeh in such a strange manner:

"Their enemies came there, too, and during the night were overrun by a horde of field mice that gnawed quivers and bows and the handles of shields, with the result that many were killed fleeing unarmed the next day."

Gertoux writes of Berosus' version of this account:

"According to Josephus, quoting Berosus:

Now when Sennacherib was returning from his Egyptian war to Jerusalem, he found his army under Rabshakeh his general in danger [by a plague], for God had sent a pestilential distemper upon his army; and on the very first night of the siege, a hundred fourscore and five thousand, with their captains and generals, were destroyed. So the king was in a great dread and in a terrible agony at this calamity; and being in great fear for his whole army, he fled with the rest of his forces to his own kingdom (Jewish Antiquities X:21).

Rats being the vector of plague this story is plausible."
Gertoux, IBID.

Into this fray steps Hezekiah with this biblical version of this event:

[2Ki 19:7-9 KJV] 7 Behold, I (God) will send a blast upon him (Sennacherib), and he shall hear a rumour, and shall return to his own land; and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land. 8 So Rabshakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria (Sennacherib) warring against Libnah: for he had heard that he was departed from Lachish. 9 And when he heard say of Tirhakah (Taharka) king of Ethiopia, Behold, he is come out to fight against thee: he sent messengers again unto Hezekiah, saying....

Gertoux, following the lead of Francis Llewellyn Griffith [See: "Stories of the high priests of Memphis; the Sethon of Herodotus and the demotic tales of Khamuas" (1900)] equates the Sethon of Herodotus to Taharqa.

Stay Tuned.

Toby

  • Taharqa, age 20, co-reign with ShabatakaToby Charles Anderson, Mon Aug 5 23:35
    Taharqa, age 20, co-reign with Shabataka Greetings, Taharqa’s reign is reckoned from 690bc, none-the-less, there is evidence that he co-reigned with his brother Shabataka much earlier than this. A... more
    • Sabaka - when the chronology doesn't work, just change his nToby Charles Anderson, Tue Aug 13 14:03
      Sabaka - when the chronology doesn't work, just change his name! Greetings, When you read this post, you'll understand the title of this posting. In the Appendix below, I quote from: A. Joe Baker B.... more
      • Shabaka & ShabatakaJaap Titulaer, Thu Aug 15 11:24
        Hi Toby, First, my name is Titulaer, not Titalar ;) Second, the reconstruction of D25, including the order of the reinging kings is based on primary data, not any late secondary or tertiary sources... more
        • Shabaka & ShabatakaToby Charles Anderson, Thu Aug 15 17:54
          Hello Jaap, Sorry about misspelling your name. And thanks for the link to Shebitku. It has many things to ponder. FWIW, I did, in fact, read wikipedia on shabaka.... more
          • Shabaka & ShabatakaJaap Titulaer, Fri Aug 16 06:11
            Hi Toby, I'm on holiday, so I'm without access to my computer or even a proper keyboard... Working from memory here. The Shabataka issue was discussed a lot two decades ago (at ANE, later a.o. here), ... more
            • Primary Tang-i-var Shabaka & ShabatakaToby Charles Anderson, Sat Aug 17 15:43
              Hello Jaap, You wrote: "Assuming that Shabataka was second his reign would need to be stretched to 16 years, from 706 to 690, with at least 13 years of those without any attestation!" I will keep... more
            • Shabaka & ShabatakaJaap Titulaer, Fri Aug 16 06:44
              Hi Toby, I've found your #viii, but that is a secondary or even tertiary text. Discussed here... more
              • Shabaka & ShabatakaJaap Titulaer, Fri Aug 16 07:02
                Hi Toby, An extra comment on CtYBR2885, it is a demotic text and is read as given 203 years. AFAIK demotic 3 looks a lot like 7 in demotic. Hence the correct meaning may be 207 years. I have Tefnakht ... more
                • Re: Shabaka & ShabatakaJaime, Thu Aug 22 13:19
                  Hi Jaap, Toby how certain can we be that Great Chief Tefnahkt became king after Piye quelled the northern kinglets? Regards, Jaime
                • 203 years of CtYBR2885 from Bakenrenef to PsammetichusToby Charles Anderson, Sat Aug 17 14:09
                  Hi Jaap, There were several discussions on this list regarding the 203 years of CtYBR2885 from Bakenrenef to Psammetichus. The specific one I was referring to was from Ian Onvlee, which I give below... more
    • Taharqa, age 20, co-reign with Shabataka — Toby Charles Anderson, Fri Aug 9 11:46
      • Taharqa, age 20, co-reign with ShabatakaJaap Titulaer, Fri Aug 9 18:17
        Hi Toby, >> What does Herodotus mean by this? >> Were there 2 invasions? >> or Was there 1 invasion? Two. Herodotus mixes it all up. He calls all Kushite kings Sabacon and had him reign for 50... more
        • Herodotus' Sabacon and SethonToby Charles Anderson, Sat Aug 10 10:58
          Hello Jaap, Me thinks Herodotus is not so mixed up as you espouse. I'll address your 2 main arguments that Herodotus is mixed up, to wit: 1. YOUR CLAIM HERODOTUS' GENERIC USE OF SABACON 2. THE... more
          • Herodotus aJaap Titulaer, Sat Aug 10 12:25
            Hi Toby, Yes Khan came to essentially the same conclusion. (This was before the reversal of the order of Shabaka & Shabataka.)... more
            • re: herodotusToby Charles Anderson, Mon Aug 12 12:46
              Hi Jaap, Thanks for the lead to Khan regarding Sabacon standing for all Kushite kings. IMHO, I reject this, 1. firstly as there seems to be too much correlation between the names of Shabako/Shabaqo... more
        • Taharqa, age 20, co-reign with ShabatakaJaap Titulaer, Fri Aug 9 18:21
          >> Shabaka is certainly also the son-in-law of Taharqa Ahum, Shabaka was brother-in-law of Taharqa, not son-in-law. Harran Tablets Vs. 70-71 [Onasch, Die Assyrischen Eroberungen Ägyptens, I, 108.]:... more
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