Amenirdis I
Mon Jun 30, 2003 09:55 (XFF:

Hi Leo,

Sorry, I mistyped Year 15 for Year 12. Both the Wadi Gasus and the Wadi Hammamat graffiti associate a Year 12 with Amenirdis I. In the former case Shepenwepet I is also named, and associated with a Year 19. As far as I know, no one has suggested that these regnal years are the count of the God's Wives themselves, or that these were entitled to a regnal year count in the first place. I think that is unlikely.

The coincidence between the Year 12 at Wadi Gasus and the Year 12 of Shabaqo at Wadi Hammamat (assuming Kitchen has not deduced the name of the king), may account for Morkot dating the Wadi Gasus graffito to the reign of Shabaqo. If these are references to the same Year 12, it is perhaps possible to infer that the absence of Shepenwepet I from the Wadi Hammamat graffito indicates her death. But there could be other explanations.

There is no evidence that Amenirdis I was installed by her father Kashta, nor is the latter's position (if any) in Upper Egypt clear. It is entirely possible that Kashta's name here turns up simply as Amenirdis' father. We are consequently unable to determine whether Amenirdis I was installed as Adorer of the God (i.e. heiress) or God's Wife in the reign of Kashta, Piankhy, or Shabaqo, but the probability increases with each later reign. That Year 12 at Wadi Gasus belongs to the reign of Kashta seems least likely to me, and the reign of Shabaqo is perhaps the most likely solution, but not certain. As for the reign of Kashta, it appears that even the attestation of Year 1 above is not absolutely certain.

Kashta is attested in Egypt only by a broken stela at Elephantine and by a possible reference to his badly preserved cartouche associated with a Year 1 in the Priestly Annals of Karnak. Identified by Priese in 1970, this last datum has not received any further weight in the more recent (1989) publication of the Karnak Priestly Annals by Kruchten: Morkot, Black Pharaohs, 158, 312 n. 32. Morkot thinks Amenirdis I may have been installed as heiress by her father, because many other future God's Wives were. But this is hardly definitive proof. Amenirdis I seems to have actually achieved the status God's Wife apparently in Year 12 of Shabaqo.

Best, Ian

  • Ian, Does Morkot's theory say that the Year 12 date at Wadi Gasus should refer to Amenirdis' tenure as God's Wife rather than as a datable reference to her royal superior--whether it be Kashta, Piye... more
    • Amenirdis I — Ian, Mon Jun 30 09:55
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