Re: Some notes on Shebitqu
Fri Jun 27, 2003 09:32 (XFF:

Dear Fred,

1. On the Bakenranef - Shabaqo synchronism. I am familiar with the arguments against it, but I am still willing to accept the conclusion that we have a Year 6 - Year 2 synchronism. The Bakenranef burial of Apis in Year 6 is attested by a number of stelae, whereas the "Shabaqo stela" is only one and, if memory serves, or poorer quality, inscribed with ink rather than cut. It seems to me that Bakenranef buried an Apis that received a number of official and private dedications and that Shabaqo's takeover soon after resulted in the addition of another private stela (by a member of Shabaqo's entourage?) dated to the reign of the new ruler. Now if one were to find several other dedications to an Apis buried in Year 2 of Shabaqo (and especially if they clustered in an are of the Serapeum clearly different from the chamber with the dedications to Bakenranef's bull), then the synchronism would definitely have to be abandoned.

Note also the statistical improbability that a bull died in Year 6 of Bakenranef, and another lived from about that time to its death in Year 2 of Shabaqo, dying at the age of 9 instead of the average 17 or more. It is by no means impossible, but unlikely, all the more so because it is attested by a single private stela of poor quality. As Morkot has noted, there is no positive evidence for the burial of any Apis by Shabaqo.

2. We have no idea who nominated Amenirdis I, but we do know that she became the God's Wife of Amun (as opposed to the apprentice) in the reign of her brother Shabaqo. She may indeed have been named heir to the previous God's Wife earlier, but note that none of her monuments associate her with Piankhy--she is named as the daughter of Kashta and as the sister of Shabaqo. The mention of Kashta does not necessarily indicate that she achieved her status under him, because it is natural as a specification of her parentage. The absence of Piankhy probably simply reflects the fact that she did not officiate under him.

Shepenwepet II was adopted by Amenirdis I while the latter's predecessor and adoptive mother Shepenwepet I was still alive. [Note, by the way, that if Shepenwepet I was installed by her father Osorkon 'III', as seems to be the case, and she died in the reign of Shabaqo, which also seems to be a fact, we would have one more circumstantial reason to place Shabaqo before Shebitqo.] Since Shepenwepet II's predecessor Amenirdis I took office as God's Wife in the reign of Shabaqo, Shepenwepet II was certainly not installed as such by her father.

Amenirdis II, a daughter of Taharqo, was adopted by Shepenwepet II in her father's reign but never succeeded to the position of God's Wife.

Later Nitaqerty was both adopted and installed in the reign of her father Psamtek I, but Ankhnesneferibre was only adopted in the reign of her father Psamtek II, succeeding only in the reign of her brother Apries.

So these cases are not all that clear cut. While it makes sense for a ruler to promote his own daughter, in this office the nominees had to await the death of the current occupant.

Whether or not the God's Wives of Amun provide an informative parallel, I am not sure we can automatically assume that Haremakhet was installed as HPA by his father. He seems to have been a younger son (otherwise why not become king instead of probably Shabaqo and certainly Tanwetamani) and may not have reached maturity till after his father's death. Compare the late advancement to the throne of his brother Tanwetamani. Given the almost certain emphasis on seniority within the ruling clan in Kushite kingship, Haremakhet's appointment as HPA instead of Nesyshutefnut may have nothing to do with encumbancy. Once again, if Shabaqo were an interloper that had to be removed by force, why should Taharqo keep (or appoint) his son to office as HPA to the apparent detriment of his own son.

3. Where in Eusebius is it stated that Taharqo killed his predecessor? This does not appear to be in the epitomes of Manetho, but I noticed that the Armenian version of Eusebius renders Taharqo's name as Sarakos rather than Tarakos. I wonder if it is possible that the statement you refer to ultimately derives from a confusion between Sarakos and Sabakon "who, taking [his predecessor] Bokhkhoris captive, burned him alive." I doubt that an attempt to study the manuscript tradition would turn up anything conclusive, but we should be cautious with the details of the Manethonic epitomizers, Eusebius most of all.

Again, Taharqo killing his predecessor makes little sense when one reads his account of his accession, regardless of whether this predecessor was a usurping uncle Shabaqo or a legitimate cousin Shebitqo. The assumption that Shabaqo were a usurper is only necessary if one insists on inserting him between Shebitqo and Taharqo. And Shabaqo's absence in Taharqo's stelae seems to me best explained not as an indication of his illegitimate kingship but as an indication of him being an earlier king whose reign had little relevance for the accounts.

I agree that the Kawa stela mentioning Shebitqo's summons of Taharqo to the north does not guarantee that Shebitqo was Taharqo's immediate predecessor, but it is simpler to assume that rather than go into the complications we have been dealing with.

Best, Ian

  • Re: Some notes on ShebitquFred, Fri Jun 27 08:43
    Dear Ian, Some quick comments 1. Can you comment on your particular reasons for abandoning the synchronism Shabaqo-Bakenranef, which you defended in the past. FP : the traditionnal synchronism comes... more
    • Re: Some notes on Shebitqu — Ian, Fri Jun 27 09:32
      • Re: Some notes on ShebitquFred, Sat Jun 28 05:07
        Dear ian, some errors...: Ian : We have no idea who nominated Amenirdis I, but we do know that she became the God's Wife of Amun (as opposed to the apprentice) in the reign of her brother Shabaqo. We ... more
        • Re: Some notes on ShebitquIan, Sat Jun 28 08:38
          Dear Fred, 1. According to Morkot, Shepenwepet I died probably between Year 12 and Year 15 of Shabaqo. Hence Amenirdis I became God's Wife in that reign. 2. Shepenwepet I is depicted in the inner... more
          • Shabaqo-Shebitqo againIan, Sun Jun 29 22:42
            I recently came across a point that does not seem to have been covered by our recent discussion of whether or not to invert the traditional order of Shabaqo and Shebitqo within the 25th Dynasty. I am ... more
            • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againAnonymous, Mon Jun 30 16:02
              Hi Ian! I tried to write to you earlier, but your server appears to systematically refuse anything I send to it. Anyway, I've asked Leo to forward the message (about JEA 88 and a very short PS on... more
              • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againJoe Baker, Wed Jul 2 07:34
                Hi all Well-ll-ll, so Fred is investigating a reversal of Shabaka/Shabataka and seems to be quite enthusiastic about it (he has announced it here and on the NC list). And using many of the arguments... more
                • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againChris, Wed Jul 2 19:26
                  I have just received a copy of an interesting article by Stephanie Dalley, "Yaba, Atalya and the Foreign Policy of Late Assyrian Kings", SAAB 12:2 (1998) 83-98. Its central argument is that these two ... more
                  • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againIan, Wed Jul 2 22:31
                    Dear Chris, Shoshenq (Shu-sa-an-qu) was the son-in-law or brother-in-law (hatna sharri) of Sin-ahhe-eriba, but almost certainly in Nineveh, rather than Egypt. He stood as witness to a real estate... more
                    • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againChris, Thu Jul 3 08:38
                      ian -- Thanks for the additional information onn this Shoshenq. Re the conclusion that 711 is a TPQ, I have the source on order through ILL and will let you know, but you may well be right. Chris
                • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo. Try it again JoeJoe Baker, Wed Jul 2 07:40
                  Hi all Well-ll-ll, so Fred is investigating a reversal of Shabaka/Shabataka and seems to be quite enthusiastic about it (he has announced it here and on the NC list). And using many of the arguments... more
                  • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo and RudamunJoe Baker, Wed Jul 2 07:52
                    Hi all 1. AFAIK the only objection to my genealogy is that Shepenupet 2 is not the sister of Shabaka. I understand there is an inscription stating this, but does it use a generic term to describe the ... more
                    • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo and RudamunIan, Wed Jul 2 18:59
                      Hi Joe, I am afraid the objections to your genealogy are far more serious than that. Not only is Shepenupet II not a sister of Shabaqo (she is the sister of Taharqo because she is the daughter of his ... more
              • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againIan, Mon Jun 30 20:04
                Hi Jean-Fred, Try my imladjov@yahoo.com address for future correspondence, I do not know why umich does not like your server. You wrote: "The group of stelae from some year 4 (Shoshenq V according to ... more
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