Shabaqo-Shebitqo again
Sun Jun 29, 2003 22:42 (XFF:

I recently came across a point that does not seem to have been covered by our recent discussion of whether or not to invert the traditional order of Shabaqo and Shebitqo within the 25th Dynasty. I am referring to the reflection of the king's victory in the sources. While these sources are admittedly very fragmentary, it is worth considering such testimony as can be found.

There are two pieces of evidence that may confirm that Shabaqo was the Kushite conqueror of Egypt and is to be equated with the "Sabakon, who, taking Bokhkhoris captive, burned him alive."

The first piece is a commemorative scarab of the kind that Amenhotep III issued in some quantity to commemorate his Mitannian marriage or the pleasure lake he excavated for his queen. The exemplar by Shabaqo reads:

"... Shabaqo, given life, more loved by Amun than any king who had existed since the founding of the land. He has slain those who rebelled against him in both South and North, and in every foreign land..." (Royal Ontario Museum no. 910.28.1).

While the text is fraught with vague superlatives and by no means explicit in connecting these claims with the Kushite takeover, both Kitchen (TIP, 379) and TGH James (CAH III/2 689-90) think that this commemorative issue was intended to reflect Shabaqo's conquest of Egypt in his Year 2.

To this piece of evidence Kitchen adds (TIP, 379-80) the dedicatory text for "good gold" embellishments added to the 4th pylon at the temple of Amun at Karnak. In this text Shabaqo's generosity is described as made possible by the loot "brought from the victories that his father Amun had decreed for him."

We do not appear to have any trace of similar records for Shebitqo. His "militaristic" titulature may or may not have anything to do with military successes. The war that Kitchen ascribes to him (possible only on the conventional model) was not a real success, nor were military operations conducted in a territory which could produce much loot (it was allied), much less large amounts of gold.

Therefore, I think it is possible to accept the above evidence as support for the traditional order of Shabaqo and Shebitqo and to identify Shabaqo as the (re)establisher of Kushite control over Egypt in or by his own Year 2.

Best, Ian

  • Re: Some notes on ShebitquIan, Sat Jun 28 08:38
    Dear Fred, 1. According to Morkot, Shepenwepet I died probably between Year 12 and Year 15 of Shabaqo. Hence Amenirdis I became God's Wife in that reign. 2. Shepenwepet I is depicted in the inner... more
    • Shabaqo-Shebitqo again — Ian, Sun Jun 29 22:42
      • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againAnonymous, Mon Jun 30 16:02
        Hi Ian! I tried to write to you earlier, but your server appears to systematically refuse anything I send to it. Anyway, I've asked Leo to forward the message (about JEA 88 and a very short PS on... more
        • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againJoe Baker, Wed Jul 2 07:34
          Hi all Well-ll-ll, so Fred is investigating a reversal of Shabaka/Shabataka and seems to be quite enthusiastic about it (he has announced it here and on the NC list). And using many of the arguments... more
          • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againChris, Wed Jul 2 19:26
            I have just received a copy of an interesting article by Stephanie Dalley, "Yaba, Atalya and the Foreign Policy of Late Assyrian Kings", SAAB 12:2 (1998) 83-98. Its central argument is that these two ... more
            • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againIan, Wed Jul 2 22:31
              Dear Chris, Shoshenq (Shu-sa-an-qu) was the son-in-law or brother-in-law (hatna sharri) of Sin-ahhe-eriba, but almost certainly in Nineveh, rather than Egypt. He stood as witness to a real estate... more
              • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againChris, Thu Jul 3 08:38
                ian -- Thanks for the additional information onn this Shoshenq. Re the conclusion that 711 is a TPQ, I have the source on order through ILL and will let you know, but you may well be right. Chris
          • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo. Try it again JoeJoe Baker, Wed Jul 2 07:40
            Hi all Well-ll-ll, so Fred is investigating a reversal of Shabaka/Shabataka and seems to be quite enthusiastic about it (he has announced it here and on the NC list). And using many of the arguments... more
            • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo and RudamunJoe Baker, Wed Jul 2 07:52
              Hi all 1. AFAIK the only objection to my genealogy is that Shepenupet 2 is not the sister of Shabaka. I understand there is an inscription stating this, but does it use a generic term to describe the ... more
              • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo and RudamunIan, Wed Jul 2 18:59
                Hi Joe, I am afraid the objections to your genealogy are far more serious than that. Not only is Shepenupet II not a sister of Shabaqo (she is the sister of Taharqo because she is the daughter of his ... more
        • Re: Shabaqo-Shebitqo againIan, Mon Jun 30 20:04
          Hi Jean-Fred, Try my imladjov@yahoo.com address for future correspondence, I do not know why umich does not like your server. You wrote: "The group of stelae from some year 4 (Shoshenq V according to ... more
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